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MPA abbreviations and acronyms

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

ACCOBAMS Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area
ANT Area natural turistica or touristic natural area, in some Latin American countries (eg, Cuba)
APRM Area protegida de recursos manejados or protected area of managed resources - includes Ramsar sites with wetlands of international importance, in some Latin American countries (eg, Cuba)
ASCI area of special conservation interest (Europe: MPA created under the Bern Convention)
ASCOBANS Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Sea
ASI area of special importance (Baltic, North, Black and Mediterranean seas: MPA for small cetaceans under ASCOBANS; or for all cetaceans under ACCOBAMS)
ASMA Antarctic Specially Managed Area, IUCN Category V area (initiated 2002)
ASPA Antarctic Specially Protected Area, IUCN Category I area (initiated 2002)
ATBA area to be avoided (states belonging to International Maritime Organization - IMO designation; area in which shipping is restricted, a modest designation more easily obtained than PSSAs)
BSEP Black Sea Environmental Programme (part of UNEP Regional Seas Programme)
BSPA Baltic Sea Protected Area (created under HELCOM)
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
CCAMLR Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
CI Conservation International
CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
CMS Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals
CNSP Convention on Conservation of Nature in the South Pacific
CPPS Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and Coastal Areas of the South-East Pacific (part of UNEP Regional Seas Programme)
CSG Cetacean Specialist Group (part of the IUCN Species Survival Commission)
EBM ecosystem-based management
EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone
EC European Commission
ESA Endangered Species Act (US)
EU European Union
FRPA fisheries resources protected area (China, Japan)
GIS geographic information systems (for mapping)
HELCOM Helsinki Convention (Convention for the Protection of the Baltic Environment against all forms of Pollution)
HSMPA high seas MPA
HSUS Humane Society of the United States
I island
ICRAM Instituto Centrale per la Ricerca Applicata al Mare (Italy)
ICRW International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling
IFAW International Fund for Animal Welfare
IMO International Maritime Organization
IUCN The World Conservation Union (formerly called the International Union for the Conservation of Nature)
IWC International Whaling Commission
LME large marine ecosystem
MAB Man and the Biosphere Programme (Unesco)
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (IMO convention)
MCEA Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region
MPA marine protected area (common acronym for generic term used by most MPA practitioners worldwide); in Canada, a federally protected marine area designated under the Oceans Act by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO); in South Africa, the official name for all marine protected areas under the Marine Living Resources Act no 18 of 1998
MR marine region
MWA marine wildlife area, in Canada, protected area created by Environment Canada under the Canada Wildlife Act
NAFO Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization
NMCA National Marine Conservation Area, a Parks Canada marine area managed on partnership basis under federal government for sustainable use (allowing sustainable fishing but not mining, oil and gas exploration and ocean dumping) and containing smaller zones of high protection
NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service (US)
NMS national marine sanctuary (US flagship marine habitat protection programme (essentially IUCN Category VI protection)
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (US)
NOWPAP Northwest Pacific Programme (part of UNEP Regional Seas Programme)
NP national park (protection category in many countries, sometimes legal as in Australia; mainly applying to terrestrial but sometimes including marine areas)
NWR National Wildlife Refuge (US)
OBIS Ocean Biogeographic Information System
OSPAR Oslo and Paris Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment in the Northeast Atlantic
PA protected area
photo-ID photographic identification
PM parque marino or marine park (Spain/ Latin America)
PN parque natural or natural park, in some Latin American countries (eg, Cuba); parc national, in France, French Territories
PSSA Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (IMO designation for areas which need special protection due to their significance for ecological, socioeconomic or scientific reasons and which may be vulnerable to damage by maritime activities)
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, also known as the Ramsar Convention
RB la reserva de biosfera or biosphere reserve, in some Latin American countries (eg, Cuba)
RE reserva ecologica or ecological reserve, in some Latin American countries (eg, Cuba)
RF refugio de fauna or wildlife refuge, in some Latin American countries (eg, Cuba)
RM reserva marina (Latin America: IUCN)
RN reserva natural or natural reserve, in some Latin American countries (eg, Cuba); also reserve naturelle in France
SAC special area of conservation as designated by each EU member nation in the European Community under the Habitats and Species Directive, forming part of the Natura 2000 network
SBSTTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice
SIC sitio de interesse communitario or site of community interest (SCI) in the European Community (see SCI)
SCI site of community interest (European Community sites with EC-wide value)
SSC Species Survival Commission (part of the IUCN)
SSSI site of special scientific interest, e.g., in the UK and Hong Kong, usually a small PA created for scientific purposes; also used in the Antarctic pre-2002
sp species (singular)
spp species (plural) or all species when following a genus
SPA special protected area under the 1999 SPA Protocol (Protocol for Special Protected Areas and Biological Diversity of the Barcelona Convention); also refers to significant populations of wild birds and their respective habitats under the EU Birds Directive; SPA is also the former name of specially protected areas in the Antarctic, now called ASPA
SPAMI special protected area of Mediterranean interest, as designated under the Barcelona Convention and the SPA Protocol (1999)
SPAW Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (part of the Cartagena Convention)
SPREP South Pacific Regional Environmental Program
UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
Unesco United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
WCMC World Conservation Monitoring Centre (now called UNEP-WCMC)
WCPA World Commission on Protected Areas
WDCS Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society
WDFW (State of) Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife
WHC World Heritage Convention (Convention for the Protection of the World, Natural and Cultural Heritage) (Unesco)
WSSD World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg Summit)
WWF Worldwide Fund for Nature
ZEC zona especiais de conserva_o or special area of conservation (SAC) under the EU Habitats and Species Directive (Portugal, Azores and Madeira)
ZPE zona de protec_o especial or special area of protection (refers to significant populations of wild birds and their respective habitats under the EU Birds Directive) (Portugal, Azores and Madeira)

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